It can be calculated using twoindices as proposed in [23]: Their system andplacement method for the node feeder can be seen in Figure 2. This allows them tosynchronize measurements from distant locations, giving a real-time picture of the complete powersystem [9]. Real world distribu-tion networks are comprised of tens to hundreds of thousands of buses while transmission systemsrange between a few hundred to thousands of buses [19]. This continues until thedifference between the upper and lower limit is one.

The most recent notable conference took place in and was held in Paris, France. Atfirst glance, it appears this method is extremely fast, provides minimal results, and provides a highredundancy. Therefore, they would be able toachieve a higher SORI value. However, the high cost of these devices, inaddition to the communication infrastructure that would be needed, makes it unfeasible to placethem at every node on a feeder. Heuristic algorithms can either produce a good approximation or anexact solution, depending on the algorithm itself [21].

Differential Evolution Algorithm Differential Evolution DE algorithm is a simple but effective intelligent optimization algorithm presented firstly by Rainer Storn and Kenneth Price in Stage 2 is summarized in two steps below.

University of British Columbia.

# Incorporation of PMUs in power system state estimation – DRS

In this case, when removed, complete observabilitywould not occur. For example, solar panels on top of homes willgenerate power when the sun is shining. The algorithm was tested on standard IEEE distribution feeders: Lastly, distribution systems typically contain switches, whichneed to be accounted for in the placement algorithm.

The key goal of this research was to enable a way tomonitor the distribution system utilizing existing technology and be as economical as possible.

# Optimal PMU Placement and Signal Selection for Monitoring Critical Power System Oscillations

In this thesis, a new method is proposed for the optimal allocation of PMUs in electrical power networks that ensures reliable monitoring of important buses.

Lastly, the proposed algorithmwas able to achieve the minimal case for all networks except one, the IEEE node network. Comparatively, for the proposedalgorithm, it is fairly equally likely that either one, two, or three nodes will be unobserved. As the connectivity matrix is the sole input to the customized greedy algorithm, end nodesand nodes connected to end thsis must be identified from that matrix. How-ever, although this method should yield faster results than exhaustive, the results section in [29]show that this algorithm was much slower than their customized exhaustive method.

However, from Figure 3. It compares the results of the proposedalgorithm with the results of the works outlined in the literature review.

The outcome of this conference was the Paris Agreement. They tested their method on IEEE networks: To further explain this, a walkthrough will be done for the IEEE node network. Next, in Section 4. If complete observability is achieved, end program. The distribution system needs to be monitored in real time so that minor issuesrelating to grid stability placemment be noted and fixed before they cascade into system failure.

## Mathematical Problems in Engineering

It is comprised of nodesand twelve switches. This makes sensebecause of the radial structure of distribution systems and the hybrid greedy process: This algorithm is based on a greedy algorithm which has many benefits such as fast computation time and high reliability. In step 3, after each iteration, the upper bound is decreased by one.

When placed at a node, it is capable of measuring the voltage phasor at the node and all incident current phasors to the node. Yhesis result is a vector of values as given by 3. However, the high cost of these devices, inaddition to the communication infrastructure that would be needed, makes it unfeasible to placethem at every node on a feeder.

Simple 9-node radial network. They tested their algorithm on standard IEEE test feeders: Optimal micro phasor measurement unit placement for complete observability of the distribution system.

These important topics are imperative for understanding certain aspects of theliterature review as well as the proposed solution pptimal in the thesis. This algorithm is based on a greedy algorithm which has manybenefits such as fast computation time and high reliability.

## Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit Placement for Monitoring of PEA Bowin Power

Distribution networks are balanced. However, it can be seen that theproposed algorithm was much faster than the other works listed. Two types of contingencies are considered in this study as expressed in the following.

The next steps can be described as follows: